Friday, June 29, 2007


To say that Redbones only lived within a certain small area in Louisiana and none lived or originated from other states and did not migrate to places like Texas or Oklahoma, is amusing. It’s like what came first, the chicken or the egg. Redbones did not simply morph out of the ground around Bearhead Creek.

I think it is understood by everyone that the term Redbone was a given term. What is not known is by whom it was given, BUT THE TERM DID NOT ORIGINATE IN LOUISIANA!

In a letter from Albert Rigmaiden, Calcasieu Parish Treasurer, written May 6, 1893, to McDonald Furman in the Carolinas. Rigmaiden writes the following:

"Dear Sir,

In reply to yours of April 22nd. I will state I am unable to tell you how the name Red bone originated for the people called Red-bones, but I think the Negroes were the first to give them that name as they (the Negroes) has no use or love for them & they do not like the Negroes any better. I suppose you know the kind of people called Red bones, they are neither white nor black & as well as I can find out, the oldest ones came from S.C. many years ago. There are a great many of them in this Parish & in Rappides & Vernan Parish & some in other Parishes in this State & a good many in Texas too. Some of these people are as good citizens as any body & some are rascally & treacherous but you will find that among any People, but I think these are the most treacherous when they take a dislike to any one.

I will give you the names of some of the principal & oldest families that I know of. They are -- Ashworth -- Goins -- Perkins -- Drake -- Hoozer -- Sweat -- Buxton -- Doil or Dial -- Johnson -- Esclavant -- these people keep pretty well to gether & Marry amongst themselves mostly, but occasionally a White man or Woman Marries among them, but if they do it is generally a low class of White people. It is a very unpleasant (situation?) to live about these people for this reason, they are not looked on as being -- Negroes -- Indian nor White people & as this is a White Peoples Country, they (the White People) don't put themselves on equality, socially, with any other people except White People. Although some of these People are perfect gentlemen & ladies & well educated.

I think they get along exceedingly well and peaceably, considering all these of these drawbacks. I have given you as near the facts as I am trusting it will give you the desired information."

Yours Truly

Signed : A Rigmaiden

So what we have is a letter written (by my 5 th cousin) in 1893, who was the Treasurer of Calcasieu Parish, describing what he knows about Red Bones. It's an important date, and just two years prior, there had been an altercation at Westport, La., involving persons known as Red Bones, that had been reported in several newspapers -- 1891.

Another important part of this letter states that the Red Bones were neither Negroes or Indians, and he goes on to name the Red bones that he knew of.

Rigmaiden comments on where the Red bones (the older ones) had come from and that a good many of them lived in Texas. Keep in mind that Rigmaiden has a leg up on present day researchers, as he is the guy on the ground in 1883.

Albert Rigmaiden's mother, Elisha Ryan Rigmaiden, was also related to Sharafina Drake Goins.

Red Bones lived all over, it was their right.

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Wednesday, June 27, 2007


Was your Granny a Redbone Portuguese Indian Princess? No? What about your Redbone Turkish or Irish Indian Princess? Not sure? Read on!

In the 1800's, about all you could say for "Free Persons of Color" was they were free, and they were of "colored peoples." What color, has never been explained -- those folks were simply placed in the coffee can of history and filed away. If they were White enough, had money and could speak good English, they climbed out of the can.

How come our census' lacked a column for Irish, Portuguese, Scot, Turk, German, Italian, Moors, French, Chinese or Jamaican? Those folks were in this country early on -- came right through the Port of New Orleans they did. Oh sure, some made the trek from the East Coast and the original colonies and others trickled down the Mississippi from Canada. Were Redbones some of these folks? You bet they were and many of the ones from Carolina brought the word "Redbone" with them. It simply meant they were carrying Indian Blood -- assimilated civilized Indians with a European mix!

You can find census records in Louisiana for Free People of Color (FPC), but those records do not go any further than that -- I lament, who were the Free People of Color? Think about it.

You had a great deal of detail, for the day -- White population age brackets and a column for "slaves" (be they Black or be they Indian slaves), but nothing to describe Free People of Color? Where was the record for Mediterranean peoples? They were either White enough or they were "Colored Peoples."

Sure, the expression "Free People of Color" could have meant "Free Africans" as well -- surely there were some, but again, what about the so called shipwrecked Portuguese (which was really an Atlantic coastal story rather than a Gulf of Mexico one, but it could have happened) or the landed Mediterranean peoples in New Orleans?

The answer of course is no one had the time to unravel this tangle, and it was far easier to put them in the can and forget them -- they were of no consequence. Our governments simply did not have a way to record or keep a record of these mixes of humanity.

From census records, the core Redbone families, the heads of households, without much exception, claim the Carolina's as their place of birth. Some spouses seem to be scattered out from the Carolina's to Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Florida and Mississippi. So we can say that not many, if any, landed by ship in New Orleans -- unless they came from the Carolina's. But, without much exception, they were known as Free People of Color in 1810 -- in Louisiana at least -- it may not have been so in the Carolina's where they had other names such as Redbone.

Not all of these Louisiana Redbone families left the Carolina's and not all of these families arrived intact in Louisiana. It was not at all like closing up one community, climbing en mass onto an airliner and getting off in Lake Charles. Some parents, brothers, sisters, cousins and other "Redbone family surnames" never made the trip just as some never migrated to Houston, Texas; San Antonio, Texas or Tishimingo, Oklahoma. That's right, some Redbone families surely never migrated.

There are also bits and pieces scattered along the migration trail giving some clues to who the Redbones were, and some of the pieces are beginning to provide a more complete picture. Land titles, land passports, town census', marriage records and other civil records.

With DNA, some of these pieces are beginning to show some promise, yet the clues showing up are not all the same but of different family lines, and they should be.

We've always known from whence they came, and they were still the same people in Louisiana/ Texas as they were in Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and Spanish Florida. There are still fragments of the name Redbone on Church's, Creeks, Cemeteries and other place names along their suspected route's of migration. So that in itself is telling.

So the remaining question is, and the answers are still out there for anyone to see -- who were the Redbones? I say they were mixed blooded European Peoples with a large percentage of North American Indian Blood migrating Westward with everyone else, THEY WERE NOT AMERICAN GYPSIES!

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Saturday, June 23, 2007


But first, Ray Bridges Death threat (he might really mean it). So, what would you do if he made something up about you -- sit there like a wuss?

In a message dated 6/21/2007 4:55:22 P.M. Central Daylight Time, writes:

"Old Two Feathers (that's what my cousins call you), you must be hyperventolating even as we speak. I'll dance on your grave."

In a message dated 6/21/2007 4:49:26 P.M. Central Daylight Time, writes:

"Old man, you're going to work yourself into a stroke. You've done made the wrong bunch of Redbones mad at you."

Threats? Who knows, but just for the record, thar ya be pilgrim! The wrong bunch of Redbones, according to Ray, are Brenda Bass, Linda Clark and Terry Jackson. What are they up to?

Now the question in my mind, which has been popping up for months, "is Ray Bridges Redbone by blood?" Or, as my Spanish friends would say: "a pinche cousin by marriage." Ray dodges the issue which makes me wonder?

Are the other Redbones in the group blood Redbones? It is likely that Brenda Bass and Linda Clark are -- maybe? I am blood related to many of the Bass family. Is that a surprise? Thirty relations and twenty-five of them by blood. Oh, oh, there was an Indian in the woodpile.

I know that Linda Clark has been ragging the RHF (since the big throw down, as she puts it -- throw down?) to remove her picture from their website as an attendee at the 2006 conference. You know, they don't have to, but they likely will. But, which one is she? Maybe she should send a picture.

Yes, that is Ray's drama -- guess Linda bought into this phony war of his. War is hell I suppose, but what would Ray know about War? The part about Bearhead Creek is also phony, Ray just wants to drag folks in who don't want to be a part of his American Gypsy group -- Ray, Terry, Brenda, Linda?

Now Terry is another claiming Redbone, but is he, as I put it earlier a "pinche cousin by marriage," is he Redbone by blood? It really doesn't matter one way or the other, you're still family, except -- when you are damming the Redbone Community in the guise of a blood relative, if that is the case. Smacks of Cowboy and Indians or "I'm going to take away your little red ball," says the school yard bully.

Isn't it strange that with the help of KPLC-TV, according to Ray, and I've seen the emails, they are valid, they are to make Redbones Gypsy's? Is that why I've had 5 (five), (Cinco), (IIIII) email messages cussing Ray and KPLC for attempting to make Redbones Gypsy's? Did this fabrication really start at Starks? I hope not. Maybe Elain Metcalf could tell us.

And that brings up another matter -- the matter of twelve RHF DNA kits in Ray's hands. My suggestion is to not buy -- yeah, "BUY" any kits touted as costing $25.00 -$50.00 -$100.00 dollars a pop from the Starks area. Enough said. Psssss ..... "ya wanna buy a DNA kit cheap?"

Now let me tell you one more thing -- RHF is not going to stand for this racist story if it is indeed being concocted by Ray Bridges & KPLC-TV (as Ray has stated). You're on notice, you will be sorry you wrote the story. Hear the sound of tramping feet? (And that, is directed at where the shoe fits -- do I make myself perfectly clear?)

But, back to my blood relations. I've said I'm blood related to the BASS' and I'm more blood related to the DRAKE'S, DOYLE'S, JOHNSON'S, RYAN'S, RIGMAIDEN'S, GOINS', BAYLES, BUXTON and other Redbone families. Now I said families, not related to names, and it is all by BLOOD, NOT BY MARRIAGE.

Where does Ray come into the picture? Beats me, he refuses to discuss it. How about it Ray, how blood related are you? Put it on the table.

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Friday, June 22, 2007


By: Stacy Webb

I hope to add some of my end of the tale here.

Obviously Ray Bridges has a real problem with everyone. I am not sure that the Bearhead Creek Redbones are aware of his latest tantrum and rantings. So, I decided to post some of my communications with him here.

I am however, surprised at his lack of knowledge and research experience. Very sadly Ray has decided to create a personal war with me in attempt to hide his ignorance for the common ancestry and ethnic influence concerning the people known as Redbone. I am inclined to believe that group is much more enlightened and open minded than he would allow us to believe.

If anyone would like copies of any of the materials I am posting, please contact me, I will be happy to send those to you.

Here are some of the files and research I have sent to Ray in the last few months. Someone might get some good out of them, but he never commented one way or the other, any of it?

Dear Ray,

In response to your newest blog comments and more;

First of all, Thomas Nash was considered by his family to be a full blooded Cherokee (affidavits given by his sons and grandsons in 1896 to the five civilized tribes). You can see a copy of the affidavits, at my research journal/blog.

Second, check out the DNA results for your "white man's" descendants, they are far from white! You look pretty silly making the comment he was white with those kinds of results!

Third, I was not quoting you! The fact Thomas Nash was a progenitor of La Redbones, I was quoting Don Marler and Jane McManus. I told you this several times?

It's probably difficult for someone outside the discussion to understand why this statement is so offensive.

Ray, you and a few of your BHCRB's are the only one's who make offensive comments and continually claim you are the only RB's. Your elitist group has no basis, and it will likely lead to the groups demise.

Here is a quote from Ray Bridges;

"You people can claim kinship all you want. That does not make us recognize you as kin. If you think I have a stubborn streak on this subject, just wait until you meet the rest of the clan. We're not saying you aren't, but we are not convinced."

This is a very offensive comment and we do not have to convince you or anyone else, of anything! Anyone who shares a descent from the people known as RB, have a right to identify and be part of RHF, period.

Thomas Nash was in La., some of his children were born there, he went back and forth between La. and TX. between 1830-1850 (1850 he was 96 yrs old) he is reported to have died in Natchitoches Parish and buried at Rapides. Many of his descendants, and my grandparents, were born in Rapides Parish. Perhaps you should research the Nash family yourself before you make unsubstantiated comments like this to your blog.

I do not have time to walk you through the history of the people known as RB but likely I have more research, documents and extracted records on my blog/research journal about him, and his descendants, that would help you understand. Go check it all out for yourself!

Also, the term RB is not particular to La. How would Furnam write letters about the people known as RB from SC., if they only existed in La? The map I laid on the table in VA. that many people took an interest to, was not my map, it is a map I found on the Internet.......ahhh, someone else's work.

By the way, I have never ever been "scorned" by the Nash Network. I am in favorable standing with them and have always enjoyed a good and open relationship. The Network does not always like to hear the truth and some blame the messenger rather than the message. The person who seemed to make such a fuss about the color issue, and the person Larry Keels just adores and hangs on every word, we have found with DNA testing, he is not even related to our Thomas Nash family.

Prior to 1790, Thomas Nash is in Ms. Territory/ Natchez District along with many other known RB progenitors, including your James Ashworth!

1790 Opelousas Parish, La.

Thomas Ash
Betsy Ash

1810 St. Landry Parish as
Thomas Ash 7 (all other free not Indian) members of family.
1810 Opelousas parish, La.

Gideon Johnson

Letty Johnson

Gibson Johnson

1820 Opelousas Parish, La.

Thomas Ash
Benjamin Going

Joseph Willis

Gabe pulled his writings at your blog because you are unenlightened with your knowledge of the people known as RB. He and some other's are offended at the BHCRB's exclusiveness and "ridger's only" syndrome. I will have you notice where the Melungeon gathering is this isn't the ridge (Newman's). Big Stone Gap, Va. People might be willing to contribute more to your blog, if you consider this is a learning experience and your opinions are not the end to all.

Ray Bridges wrote;

"You still don't seem to get what pissed me off. Be that as it may, I prefer not to argue about theories. One is as good as another. Just because I don't buy yours does not mean that I'm close minded or ignorant. It just means you haven't convinced me. For all I know you may be right, but you've made plenty of unsubstantiated claims, some annoying and some close to being offensive."

"I don't care that you have passionately held views. I do mind that you are so sure of your opinion that you would say something as asinine as you did."

"KPLC is not interested in the history of mixed-race people in the United States. They are interested in the strange and mysterious people who inhabit the western part of the parish of Calcasieu who are called Redbones. They are the only ones about whom I feel any qualification to write."

"You people can claim kinship all you want. That does not make us recognize you as kin. If you think I have a stubborn streak on this subject, just wait until you meet the rest of the clan. We're not saying you aren't, but we are not convinced. Yelling at me does not convince me either. It just makes me stop listening. Same with telling me that I have a closed mind because I do not agree with you."

"I continue to believe that we are traveling down the same path, even if we travel at different speeds. My direction is determined by the information I learn each day. I do not have a preconceived notion about where we are supposed to end up. Can you be sure of the same? Sometimes I think you read and research to upport your conclusions."

"I do not like conflict and arguing. I will shut someone off if they persist. You can get over my silence a lot more quickly than you're likely to get over my getting down and basic and telling you off. Silence doesn't sting nearly as much as sharp words."

I'm not mad at you, but the chill is still in the air.

I'll be making a report with recommendations to the board tomorrow. The discussion is over when you blame me for not being convinced by what you consider irrefutable evidence. Your failure to convince me of something does not mean I refuse to understand your point. It means that you have failed to convince me. " wrote:

Hi Ray

"Please don't cut off our communications, even if we disagree I hope we can stick together. I would like to read your article, I think the board members would also appreciate knowing an article will soon be published. I was not being critical, I just wanted to make sure we all have proper representation and acknowledgement. The ones in TX/Ms/SC and other points who might share our heritage, may or may not identify now but I hope to slowly change their ways of thinking and bring pride to their personal heritage. We have to remember we are representing a larger picture for Redbone Heritage Foundation and RB people in general. I do not feel because someone may or may not "identify" with their heritage does not make them any less one of us. Blood is blood and heritage is heritage..if you recognize it or not, it can't be changed. Hope you have a terrific trip and maybe get some rest before you go? I will be working on website updates and my Chronicles article. I am having some trouble with bravenet again but I have a support ticket into them, hope to get it worked out soon."

chat soon!

The following emails are all to old to forward, so I am archiving the communications from Ray and myself concerning the "argument" he says we never happened. We had one heated debate or exchange on the telephone after he informed me that his plans for RHF does not include the ones in TX., MS., or any other place but right there in Calcaseui Parish, La. He also informed me that he would not mention or comment on any of the groups in his coming article out of Lake Charles and he certainly did not plan on including anyone who went to or might have remained in Mississippi or any other locations for that matter.

"I intend to concentrate my article and promotional effort with KPLC toward the Redbone American Gypsy theory."

Now, I then sent him evidence his ancestor James Ashworth was in Natchez District, Claiborne Co., Ms to be exact, he bundled those documents up and sent them right back to me with NO COMMENT.

Ray and I never had any argument, and I have never gotten mad or yelled at him for anything. He is a liar.

In an email dated 4/26/2007
I received the following from Ray Bridges in response to the below information I sent to him:

Ray said:

"One list I do want is of members who didn't rejoin. I want to focus a letter and/or email to them asking them to hold tight with us and help us grow into whatever it was they imagined we were when they joined the first year. I haven't forgotten nor have I conceded any of the issues about which we discussed several weeks ago. I don't like to be argumentative. I figure we can argue all we want in Virginia."


My response to Ray dated 4/30/2007 in response to the above

Hi Ray

Glad to hear from you. Are you back from your wonderful adventures? That's OK if you do not agree with me, we can chat and talk about it when we see one another. I will forward you a membership email but not sure it will show only those who did not re up their due's but likely I can mark which did and which did not? I will appreciate anything you can do to help with the membership. I also have a way to send mass emails from our website and have a very very large database of email address for people who are interested in RHF. I will send those along also.

The following is the email that generated the above email to Gabe's post to the RHF blog. I will try to recover his comments about the blog posting but you can get the jest of the communications.

Hi Ray

Well, I did read the new post. I will have to agree that there are known communities of Redbones other than La. and South Carolina. In fact, I am not sure if you know but many our my RB ancestors (children of Thomas Nash) were born in Georgia and Ms.! I have an affidavit from the Nash grandchildren who say James (son of one Thomas Nash) was born in Georgia and the other children in Mississippi. Benjamin Nash (another son of Thomas and another great grandfather of mine) signed The Cherokee, old Settlers treaty in Mississippi. Thomas Nash was a registered tobacco grower and "keeper of the peace" in Mississippi as early as late 1780's. Thomas Nash, Sr who married Unknown and father of Thomas Nash who m Emily Slater and Anna Goins is reported to have died in Lawrence Co., Ms. he was born in North Carolina. True, the Redbones lived many places and I am sure are scattered all over the country.

There was a group who lived around the Black Lake area (1941 La Writers project) and Kasatchie.

There is the Ms community known as Redbone which likely was established by Thomas Nash, Sr and Tobias Gibson, prior to 1800.

Becoming Southern, The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770-1860 Publisher: Oxford University Press Publication Date: 1995 Page No: 106

I purchased a copy of the above titled book, Becoming Southern and presented it to Ray at the VA Conference in Richmond. He asked me what the book was about and I told him The Redbone Community near Vicksburg, MS. Unfortunately looking back this was the obvious breaking point for Mr Bridges, he said "well, I will never read it our families were never in Mississippi and it is all a fabrication".

When I returned home, I found that his James Ashworth had in fact signed affidavits and witnessed several documents in Claiborne Co., Ms. in Natchez District. I sent the following extracted records to him as an email attachment. Within a few minutes I received an email with all the same files I sent to him in a zip folder with the only this message "NO COMMENT I am returning these to you, this is not my relative". Decide for yourself, some of you may know if it is James Ashworth a progenitor of many La Redbones or not. I do not come through the Ashworth family.

  • Early AL, AR, and MI Settlers, 1700s-1800s Ashworth, ??? Book : The Natchez Court Records, 1767-1805 Page # : 369
  • Ashworth, James Book : The Natchez Court Records, 1767-1805 Page # : 369
  • Ashworth, James Book : The Natchez Court Records, 1767-1805 Page # : 518

  • Ashworth, Private John Book : Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812 Page # : 189

South Carolina
Page 1 of 1 -- Select Page: 1
View Details - Record: 1 of 12 recordsSeries: S136002 Box - 003A Item - 00283 ignore - 00 Date: 1711-1712 Description: LONE, GYLES VS WILLIAM ASHWORTH, JUDGMENT ROLL.
View Details - Record: 2 of 12 recordsSeries: S136002 Box - 012B Item - 0004A ignore - 00 Date: 1719 Description: MOORE, THOMAS AND ELIZABETH, HIS WIFE VS JASPER ASHWORTH, EXOR. OF WILLIAM HAWETT, JUDGMENT ROLL.
View Details - Record: 4 of 12 recordsSeries: S111001 Volume - 0005 Page - 00175 Item - 02 Date: 1733/05/22 Description: INGLETON, RICHARD, MEMORIAL FOR 557 ACRES IN ST. JAMES PARISH, BERKLEY COUNTY, SUMMARIZING A CHAIN OF TITLE TO A GRANT TO JONATHAN AMORY OF MARCH 13, 1694.
View Details - Record: 5 of 12 recordsSeries: S213184 Volume - 0013 Page - 00088 Item - 02 Date: 1770/12/10 Description: ASHWORTH, JAMES, PLAT FOR 450 ACRES IN CRAVEN COUNTY.
View Details - Record: 6 of 12 recordsSeries: S213019 Volume - 0030 Page - 00149 Item - 00 Date: 1774/05/07 Description: ASHWORTH, JAMES, LAND GRANT FOR 450 ACRES IN CRAVEN COUNTY.
View Details - Record: 7 of 12 recordsSeries: S111001 Volume - 0012 Page - 00555 Item - 01 Date: 1774/09/13 Description: ASHWORTH, JAMES, MEMORIAL FOR 450 ACRES ON LITTLE PEE DEE RIVER, CRAVEN COUNTY.
View Details - Record: 8 of 12 recordsSeries: S108092 Reel - 0004 Frame - 00068 ignore - 00 Date: 1776 C. OR LATER Description: ASHWORTH, BENJAMIN, ACCOUNT AUDITED (FILE NO. 177) OF CLAIMS GROWINT OUT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
View Details - Record: 9 of 12 recordsSeries: S108093 Reel - 0027 Frame - 00296 item - 00 Date: 1811/11/04 Description: SMITH, DAVID OF UNION COUNTY, WILL TYPESCRIPT (MSS WILL: BOOK A, PAGES 268-269; ESTATE PACKET: BOX 8, PKG 40) (1 FRAME).
View Details - Record: 10 of 12 recordsSeries: S108093 Reel - 0027 Frame - 00406 item - 00 Date: 1816/11/04 Description: GUYTON, HANNAH OF UNION DISTRICT, WILL TYPESCRIPT (MSS WILL: BOOK B, PAGE 29; ESTATE PACKET: BOX 8, PKG 30) (1 FRAME).
View Details - Record: 11 of 12 recordsSeries: S213190 Volume - 0041 Page - 00076 Item - 02 Date: 1835/10/09 Description: STAFFORD, NEILL, PLAT FOR 139 ACRES ON NORTH EAST SIDE OF PERSIMON BRANCH, MARION DISTRICT, SURVEYED BY NEIL CARMICHAEL. (2 PAGES)
View Details - Record: 12 of 12 recordsSeries: S108093 Reel - 0003 Frame - 00525 item - 00 Date: 1843/05/02 Description: LOCKHART, JAMES OF ABBEVILLE DISTRICT, WILL TYPESCRIPT (2 FRAMES) (ESTATE PACKET: BOX 57, PKG. 1357)

Perkins census includes Bunch & AshworthState of MississippiEarly Southwest Mississippi Territory Pioneer DB

Early Southwest Mississippi Territory - MSGenWeb

PERKINS Trial, Abstracts of Depositions for Plaintiff

Warren County MSGenWeb Project Pre Statehood Records
NPAP DeepMap Demo Opener

Ancestry of Tobias Gibson


1790 Census SCGenWeb Archives
Nicholas Perkins Land Claim


Database = Native American DataSELECT surname,fname,tribe,type,enrollment_type,age,sex,blood_pct,card_no,roll_no,source,notes FROM main,surnames,tribes,enrollment WHERE'167804' AND and and enrollment.main_id='167804'
Native American Data for J W Ashworth
Name: Ashworth, J WTribe: ChoctawRecord Type: enrollmentSex: MEnrollment Type: P (Parent)Card No.: 1860
Credit belongs to the staff of SW National Archives, Fort Worth, Texas, who compiled the names from the Dawes Enrollment Cards for its National Archives
Others with this Family:
First Name
Blood %
P (Parent)

P (Parent)

P (Parent)

P (Parent)

Lewis G
BB (By Blood)
BB (By Blood)
Lewis G Jr
BB (By Blood)
BB (By Blood)
Henry Lloyd
BB (By Blood)
User-Added Notes (click here to add a note): none

Native American Data for Sarah Ashworth
Name: Ashworth, SarahTribe: ChoctawRecord Type: enrollmentSex: FEnrollment Type: P (Parent)Card No.: 1860
Credit belongs to the staff of SW National Archives, Fort Worth, Texas, who compiled the names from the Dawes Enrollment Cards for its National Archives
Others with this Family:
First Name
Blood %
P (Parent)

P (Parent)

P (Parent)

P (Parent)

Lewis G
BB (By Blood)
BB (By Blood)
Lewis G Jr
BB (By Blood)
BB (By Blood)
Henry Lloyd
BB (By Blood)
User-Added Notes (click here to add a note): none

From Ray

I forgot what I was going to say;

I started out with the intention of saying something important. Maybe not important as such, but interesting to the point.I'm writing my blog posting for KPLC right now. I think there was some point I wanted to run by you, but right now I can't remember it. Damn, I hate when that happens.I inadvertently took a copy of The Cherry Winch Country which I re-read on the plane coming home. I find it so patently offensive. I wish one of our better writers would make up a story in response to it. Hint. Hint. I would, but I'm busy. I thought your ancestor Thomas Nash was in one of those fights. Which one? The Cherry Winche book says there are three groups of Redbones: those around Oakdale and Pitkin, Bearhead Creek, and a nest of the vipers in East Texas. Was the East Texas ones a combination of your Nash and Stringers and the collateral kin from James Ashworth Jr?. You know he was in Angelina County in the 1850s and later. How extensive a community was it? How many families can you identify? Is there a community of Redbones there now, and do any of them, (other than you), identify as Redbones?My present approach to KPLC is that the word Redbone is a word used by the dominant society rather than Mulatto which had too many other meanings by the late 1800s. I think they used it on purpose to distinguish us from sub-saharan Africans.I'll send you a copy of the post when I get close to being finished. I hope you'll feel comfortable enough to challenge me if I say something you disagree with strongly. I doubt I will, but I want to run it by our board and several other interested parties before I submit it. I am who I am, but I also represent the RHF, and I don't want to be perceived as straying too far afield.Now, another request. Again, I'm not being argumentative. I want to read what you've read and understand your point of view. Where in Don's book does he credit Thomas Nash as being the proginator of so many Redbones? I want to understand where that comes from. I read through the book and couldn't find it. I've asked my buddy in Oakdale to take me around and introduce me to some of his folk when I'm down there next week. I'd also head to East Texas if there were any other Redbone identified people there besides Larry Keels, and he scares me.

More to come!

Thursday, June 21, 2007


I once heard of a Lakota Indian who was attempting suicide because he had taken a DNA test hoping to prove a line to Chief Crazy Horse only to find he was related to General George Custer. Some days you can't win.

Take the ups and downs of Ray Bridges -- he was excited to take a test to determine his Indian Ancestor -- no, it was not Tiny Tim -- only to find he had a Haplo of E3a -- Western Africa. (I give credit to Ray for much of the following information.)

Such is the plight of some of the various Nash lines who are coming back E3a. It makes no difference to most, as they knew there was that chance, but to some it was devastating.

One Nash who took a 67 marker test even found out that he was not closely related to the other Nash's shown but carried the African Haplo just the same.

Of course, there are many reasons for taking a DNA test in the first place. 1). to find your ethnicity, 2). to connect family lines, 3). medical reasons, 4). paternity, and perhaps legal reasons.

If you take these tests for the reasons of one or two, you should be steeled against the results that you find should you not like them -- after all, we can't all be royalty, but what difference does it make if you are but African Royalty?

Some folks will immediately fault the test and search around for a test that would make them lighter. They will never retake the test. Lot's of things to consider here, and you really should seek professional advice if you have thin skin. Such is the problem for some of our blue blood founding pioneer families of today.

No I'm not saying they were slave owners who cavorted with their slaves against their will, I'm saying they came that way, were accepted as White way back when or entered into mixed marriages during the migration periods. To say, "no Black or Red in our family" is stupid unless you know for sure.

Why, some White men even carried their wives as slaves because they could not legally marry them, and so what, they all lived in the sticks anyway -- no roads, no phone, no ipods, and no one really cared as long as it was out of sight.

But, the tests are what they are, and they don't lie. If you mix the results of one test with another -- well, garbage in, garbage out! You really need to tell the whole story.

Here are a group of Nash results posted on the web:

Kit 59288 Nash E3a 13 21 16 10 14 17 11 13 11 14 11 31 17 9 9 11 11 25 14 21 36 13 13 15 17
11 10 19 21 14 12 18 15 37 37 12 11 10 8 16 18 8 10 10 8 10 11 12 20 20 16 11 12 13 12 7 12 26 23 17 12 12 12 9 11 11 12

Kit 41245 Nash E3a 13 21 16 10 14 17 11 13 11 14 11 32

Kit 34304 Nash E3a 13 21 16 10 14 17 11 13 11 14 11 32

Now I couldn't tell you who the 67 marker Nash is, he doesn't seem to match the other Nash's, but who ever he was, he spent big bucks doing this DNA test and was pretty thorough in the information he was looking for.

Ask around and see where these folks connect up to -- who knows, you may have found a cousin.

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Tuesday, June 19, 2007


Lately, there has been quite a discussion on who is a real "Redbone". Many from Bearhead Creek will not acknowledge Redbones in other areas, in particular people who identify as a "Redbone" in Texas.

This article is not to say that people in Texas are more "Redbone" than others but is simply to make a case for those in Texas who identify with the term "Redbone".


The Redbones, in Texas, are more akin to the LUMBEE in a racial context than Louisiana Redbones. Many have the same common surnames as the Louisiana Redbones such as Goins, Bass, Dial and Ashworth but they did not stop intermarriage with Native Americans.

Such is the case with Gabe Gabehart and his Goins family.

Let me put that in perspective. Don Marler, should and probably knows, that SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA, was devoid of any Indians by the 1830's.

Where did they all go?


That's right, ALL OF THEM, except for a very few Choctaw familes around Nachitoches and it appears that two Louisiana state recognized groups are from those two families including the Clifton Choctaw and Ebarb Choctaw Apache in Zwolle which is where my Miller family and some related Archers lived at one time.

The tribes that moved to Texas were the Cherokee, Delaware, Alabama, Coushatta, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Seneca (yes Seneca), Kickapoo and all of the remaining Caddoan tribes and many others in lesser numbers.

It was the last frontier for the Eastern Native American culture and this association of Eastern tribes fought a last ditch battle around Canton, Texas in 1839 led by Cherokee Chief Duwali, Shawnee Chief Spy Buck and Delaware Chief Harris.

Cherokee Chief Duwali was killed in that battle and was shot in the head at close range.

Most went into Oklahoma after the battle, but a few Indian families remained, like the Thompson Choctaw.

By the early 1900's there were only 5 members remaining of the Attakapa Indians in Southwest Louisiana and most of them moved to Texas as well before becoming extinct.

So, who are the so called “real” "Redbones"?

To me, any of the remaining families of partial Indian ancestry left in Texas can be termed a "Redbone".

That is, if you want to define Redbone as meaning of partial Native American Indian ancestry.

We are a whole lot more.

Louisiana people of similar surnames can claim the title all they want, but it don't make it so.

You must be from mixed blood ancestry in my opinion. To have the name Ashworth, Bass or Dial is not enough. To me, a Redbone is about mixed blood ancestry.

Louisiana Redbones, they got upset when they were called a Redbone, so many of them they don't want to identify, and I say if that is the case then so be it and just perhaps they are not Redbones in the first place.

Just because someone labels you as something does not make it so.

To me, if RED meaning NATIVE AMERICAN, is part of the meaning, then I am a true REDBONE and I am much more including SOUTH ASIAN INDIAN, GYPSY and some AFRICAN as well.

I identify more as Black Dutch but who is to deny me the use of this general term.

My culture is more Native American and it always has been with the Walts and Archer families.

In our home growing up my dad had a sign in wood he had made in great big bold letters. THIS IS THE HOME OF THE CHEROKEE.

No kidding.

How many Louisiana Redbones can say that?


Monday, June 18, 2007


Being of mixed ancestry is not a new concept in my own family. Although we did not call ourselves "Redbones" we did know we were mixed. We used Black Dutch, as a way to show that admixture. It is term used in the South to describe mixed ancestry.

For Louisiana Redbones to dismiss their more "Red Native American" cousins in Texas is pretty much people who do not know about the History of Texas during the mid 1800's.

Many mixed families came into Texas at that time and there were many from the Eastern Tribes of the United States.

Delaware, Coushatta, Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek just to name a few.

The Starr family lived in Texas for many years and members of the Fields family as well.

Although many of these families may not have come from the historic "Redbone" areas of Louisiana there were many others that did.

I have a hunch that the outlaws JW Hardin and Sam Bass gang were probably Redbones but it must be proved that they are of mixed blood ancestry for many white people have these same surnames.

But let me just say this one thing.

The term "REDBONE" does not belong to one individual or group.

I have heard it used in the context of a general definition to identify a mixed person of African and Native American ancestry. I have also heard it used in the African American community.

Redbone, the term, does not belong to Bearhead Creek no more than "Indian" belongs to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw etc.

A similar and more appropiate concept is the term "Black Dutch" which was used by my family but is also used by the German Gypsy and the Pennslyvania Deutch People.

The Pennslyvania Deutch people who identify as Black Dutch know there are others who use the term for identification. They know the term Black Dutch has been used by other groups.

Just my opinion folks but unlike Melungeon, which is a uncommon term, Redbone is a common general term.

Gabe Gabehart and Stacy Webb are just as Redbone as anyone in "Bearhead Creek" or Louisiana.

In fact, one can almost make the case that Gabe and Stacy are much more "Redbone" than anybody else in Southwest Louisiana today.


But true mixed ancestry people do not exclude others of the same kind of ancestry.


Sunday, June 17, 2007



According to Ray Bridges, the self-proclaimed Redbone who never grew up in Louisiana -- KPLC-TV in Lake Charles, La. is in the production stages of a presentation to malign Louisiana Redbones as AMERICAN GYPSY'S?

Now what do you guys in Bearhead Creek think about that? Seems Brenda Bass and Linda Clark had a hand in it according to his email to me.

Now, that Ray is a "production" consultant, and we will from this day forward be known as the Southwest Louisiana Redbone American Gypsy's. Maybe you that is, Ray will go back to the left coast to sell his story, while you guys endure the hurricane to come.

That's all it's about you know -- money.

When I put the question about the American Gypsy story to members of RHF, they were horrified and could not imagine Ray denigrating the very people that he called his own. Ray did you guys, and it was easy!
Of course, integrity counts for a great deal, but integrity is not in his vocabulary.

Bless his little heart!

Saturday, June 16, 2007


On behalf of all the "naked pagans" of North America, I am compelled to say it just ain't so!

The latest commentary by Larry/Lester Keels refers to indentured servants skipping out on their masters to join the "naked pagans" in the wilds of North America, and -- having the gall to take their English Surnames with them. The commentary invokes visions of landed servants casting off their clothes en mass to run naked into the woodlands in order to join benevolent naked pagans in revelry. Pretty strange from where I sit.

But really, naked Christians hanging out with naked pagans in the park?

Larry Keels writes:

"However, my guess is that this type of emigrant would have been a prime candidate to bolt from the arduous existence of indenture (ship) and take quickly to the adventures of an untamed wilderness populated by naked pagans. As the naked pagans accrued more and more of the imported culture of the Christian invaders from the Eastern Hemisphere, some of them too (sp) eventually simply usurped the surnames of famous interlopers into their backcountry (Two words)homelands."


One may pose the question: "Were my Redbone families pagan?" "Were my Indian ancestors naked?" Were all newly arrived emigrants predisposed to cast off their prized clothing and valued shoes, if they had any, to join naked pagans in the bushes? Who were these naked pagans that Larry Keels speaks of?

Moreover, anyone with a little (very little) common sense, that does not have their heads glued between the pages of a "wild west" magazine, would understand that during the winter months, in most of the United States, those invented or faux naked pagans, if it was so, would freeze their Cajones off. Even the youngest of Redbones on the Gulf Coast know you don't run around naked in the winter.It is of course another fairytale to make the wild supposition (daydreaming) that "naked pagans" were even pagans and without their own Deities. One man's idol might be another man's God. Were they influenced by "Christian" invaders only?

Larry Keels, of course, is playing "Cowboys and Indians" again. Mother! Lock up the cap gun, and send the Manifest Destiny Kid to bed early.

As far as adopting surnames of famous interlopers, I would find that just a little far fetched in the 1500--1600's. King George the what?

Naked Pagans Rule, or "Fish Naked!"

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Friday, June 15, 2007


Larry Keels recently posted comments from the so-called Gowen Manuscript. His comments were posted to:
Also read the post by Mary E. Watson. She seems very confused about what “Redbones” were. Perhaps she needs a reality check.

“mixed-with-white Choctaw families owned many slaves, and brought their slaves with them to Indian Territory in the early 1830's. Perhaps the Goings owners of slaves also sired children by these slaves, and they became 'redbone' in Louisiana?” Ah, she has a sex angle!

Whose scientific research is this? Perhaps Mary could give us a citation or two.

This Gowen commentary has been on the refuse pile of long outdated material that was never seated in reference or truth. Manuscript? Hardly! Any researcher worth their salt would question who said what, where and – immediately look for the citations? However, there are none! Just a lot of mostly “he said, she said, they said” – not documented research at all.

Philip Goings [i] (one “L”) is my fourth Great Grandfather and Jeremiah and Sharofina Drake, of course, are my third Great Grandparents. I do not have “Blue” eyes and there is no proven connection to the Louisiana/ Texas Goings and the Melungeon Goings to date. Close, but not there yet, and remember -- not all Smith’s and Jones’ are related.

Now, Larry Keels, who excerpted this material knows all this, as we have discussed his favorite post up ad nausea. Nevertheless, he continues to post this non-research and places the blame on far outdated data and suppositions which he presents here to create controversy, which -- will likely be followed by convoluted double talk if it is challenged. So, let us begin – you decide.

"Phillip Goins," a "three-quarters" Choctaw, was born in Mississippi about 1770 and was a resident of the Choctaw Nation in Mississippi, according to United States Citizenship Court records as transcribed in "The Journal of American Family Research," Volume 3. For Phillip Goins to have been a "three-quarters" Choctaw, his father and his grandfather before him would have had to have married full-blood Choctaw women. This suggests that the grandfather Goins must have arrived in the Choctaw Nation around 1710 which is regarded as highly unlikely."

No one knows what blood Quantum Philip had other than he was Choctaw[ii] and living with a Choctaw woman namedOti Montro” (could have been Monroe or Montroe and the correct given or nickname would have been spelled “Ooti” in the Muskogeon dialect). Jeremiah’s children, by deposition, say their father was from half to full blood Choctaw. I do not know of any proof decreeing Philip to be ¾ Choctaw. For Philip to be ¾ any thing, one parent would have to be full blood and the other half, or -- both parents ¾ Choctaw. The Grandfather Goin(g)s was Stephen Goings, and he likely was “born” in Mississippi or in the surrounding areas around 1710-1720, what would be a problem with that – although it is not known where or actually when?

"Goins" is not a word in the Choctaw language, nor is it found in the "Choctaw Lexicon" compiled by the Rev. Cyrus Byington. Since the "Goins" name is Caucasian and since blue-eyed individuals have turned up among the Choctaw descendants of Phillip Goins, it is suggested that he was of Melungeon descent. The names "Goins" and "Gibson" were prominent in the Melungeon communities of Virginia, Tennessee and the Carolina's."

Another gossip comment from a person who knew little if anything -- Smith and Jones’ again? This commentary means nothing and is a total fairytale.

On my Thomas side, the family name was Pushshuke and my Great Aunt Nancy Thomas Pushshuke married Cyrus “Harris” – first Governor of the Chickasaw Nation. Another Great Aunt, Julia Thomas Pushshuke, married Nelson Chigley, a Chickasaw Senator. Another Great Aunt Adaline Goins married Lewis Mulkey, son of Mariah Ross Mulkey, sister to Cherokee Chief John Ross -- mostly so called “Caucasian” names. What, no “Eagle’s flying high?”

So what is this “it is suggested” stuff? Is that like the “they say” or “it is said?” Great research technique when you want to include your own fairy tales! P"It is possible that Phillip and Oti Goins were "invented" by the children of Jeremiah Goins and Sharofina Drake Goins to legiti­matize their bid to be enrolled by the Tribal Council of the Choctaw Nation. Their claims of Choctaw blood were denied by the Tribal Council and the Dawes Commission, which investigated the evidence."

It is also possible that Philip and Ooti were really space aliens. The fact is that the Goins family was accepted by the Dawes Commission and the Chickasaw/Choctaw Citizenship Courts and then removed by the Chickasaw/Choctaw Citizenship Courts only to be re-instated by the U.S. Courts, but never accepted by the Citizenship Courts. It would have been smart for the writer of this “Celebrated Manuscript” to have read the actual court records.

But, I will say no more other than the “rest of the Goings/Goins story” will be published in the 2 nd and 3rd volumes of the Redbone Heritage Foundation Chronicles— under the sub title, -- Goin, Going, Gone to Texas” -- read the rest of the story there.

"Jane P. McManus, a Goins researcher of Covington, Louisiana wrote September 19, 1989: "Several years ago I came across a huge genealogical collection of family group sheets assembled by Curtis Jacobs in a library in southern Louisiana [Beauregard Parish Library]. Included was a sheet on the Goins family. Listed were John Goins and wife Nancy John­son Goins. Their children were: Benjamin, James, Thomas, Stephen, Jenny [Virginia], Jerry [Jeremiah], William M. and John. ["John Goines, age 42, born in South Carolina" was enumerated as the head of Household 421 in the 1860 census or Rapides Parish, Louisiana.]William M. Goins had a bible record wherein he recorded all his family's dates. He was born August 22, 1809. He was married to Charlotte Elizabeth Nelson July 27, 1832 in St. Landry Parish. She was born December 10, 1808 in Louisiana. John Drake was bondsman. He recorded that Stephen Goins was married to Edith Perkins November 14, 1826. Jenny married Jordan Perkins March 12, 1814. [Jordan Perkins was the son of Joshua Perkins and Mary Mixon Perkins who migrated west from South Carolina to Mississippi to Louisiana in the early 1800s. They travelled with a group composed of the Willis, Sweat and Johnson families led by Rev. Joseph Willis.] Jerry married Sarafina Drake about 1820. John Goins was married to Francis 'Fanny' Nash."

So what is the point of quoting this research of Jane McManus? She is talking about a generation not directly connected to Philip, Jeremiah or Sharofina Drake Goins (other than John Drake who was Sharofina’s father and my fourth Great Grandparent, provided we are talking about the Jr. Drake). So John and Nancy’s kids had the same given names. Hello! Wake up. Jeremiah was born in Lawrence Mississippi about 1800. Sharofina was born in 1804. If John Goins was 42 in 1860, how old would he have been in 1818, and what generation are we talking about – two different John’s?

"Joshua Perkins and Jenny Goins Perkins had seven children who lived to adulthood, according to Patricia Ann Waak, Foundation member of Erie, Colorado in a letter dated October 21, 1995. One of their sons, Jesse Perkins was born about 1816. He was married about 1838, wife's name Cyndelia. Joshua Perkins and Jesse Perkins took their families westward into Texas about 1840. They appeared on the tax roll of Houston County, Texas in 1846 and were enumerated there in the federal census of 1850. Both father and son and their families appeared in the 1860 census of Bee County, Texas. Jesse Perkins and his family were enumerated in the 1870 census of Goliad County, Texas. The oldest daughter of Jesse Perkins, Martha Perkins was born about 1845 and was married about 1862, husband's name Quarles. She was remarried in 1870 to Charles Smith in Goliad, Texas. They were enumerated in Callahan County, Texas in the 1880 census. Seven children were born to them, including two sets of twins. In 1887 Charles Smith transferred all of his land to Martha Perkins Quarles Smith, shortly before her death in 1888."

Pat Waak’s work? More filler for Larry Keels, perhaps to qualify earlier skewed excerpts from Larry Keels. Notice that Larry does not seem to have any original thoughts about his excerpts as he posts none. But that is the renegade Redbone, East Texas “Cowboy and Indian,” in him.

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

[i] . 1815 Natchitoches marriage document Keziah Nash
[ii] . Rueben Goins, Affidavit. 27 August 1896. NARA Document.

Thursday, June 14, 2007


Were the Ashworth's "Free People of Color" in Louisiana -- really Negroes? Were the "Free Blacks" of Texas from Louisiana and points East Negroes? Were Redbones Negroes?

It's a tough question to answer with any degree of certainty or accuracy.

But, if FPC and FB's were Negroes, I believe they would have been called Negroes. Neither were they slaves or indentured servants. In my opinion, the Ashworth's, (1810 Opelousas Census), Nash's, Goins and Drakes were not Negroes but they were FPC.

William Goyens, of Nacogdoches, was not a slave or an indentured servant and was in business for himself in Texas, and he was well known as a Texas patriot. I don't believe he was known as a "Free Black" in Texas, except for maybe as our Free Black, before the banning of Free Blacks -- but there was certainly a fear he could have been drawn into this ban after the fact.

The Ashworth's of Louisiana were known to be "Free People of Color," just like the Drakes, Goins, Nash's and Redbones, but not Negroes. When they entered Texas, they were not known as Negroes, and I expect they were likely dark to black but without the Negroid features (at least most of them). Since the revolution was under way, it was simply ignored as it would have been if the Mexican government had still been in power.

Remember that Mexican Texas frowned on black slavery prior to the revolution of 1835-1836. Although there were some class taboos, Mexico did not discriminate against Negroes. Also, the word Negro was Spanish and means "Black."

According to The handbook of Texas Online,,
An "act passed on February 5, 1840, which prohibited the immigration of free blacks and ordered all free black residents to vacate the Republic of Texas within two years or be sold into slavery," was to counter an earlier law, "June 5, 1837, which permitted the residence of free blacks living in Texas before the Texas Declaration of Independence."

After the passing of this February 5, 1840 Law, it was realized that it could be applied to families like the Ashworths and others who could fall under the mantle of FPC or Free Blacks.

It is also curious now that around this time, Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar was urging the "extermination or expulsion" of all Indians in Texas. Would it have gone on later to include all Mexicans in Texas at some point -- and to a degree, did it? PWas Texas headed toward a "White only" enclave?

The Ashworths were worried for good cause and so were others like William Goyens and Samuel McCullough, Jr. And there were many others.

I've often wondered why it was called the "Ashworth Act" as it did not seem to start out that way. Why not the Hardin, Goyens or the McCullough Act? The rest of the story follows.

Here is how it seems to have played out. First, petitions were presented to the Legislature in behalf of Abner and William Ashworth, David and Aaron Ashworth, and Elisha Thomas, a brother-in-law of Abner and William Ashworth for an "exemption" to the 1840 Act (the petition included their families).

Now during the process, other petitions were presented to the House in behalf of McCullough, Richardson, Hardin and William Goyens. In fact, an attempt was made to attach these bills to the Ashworth Bill but all failed.

The Ashworth Bill as it was known passed the House of Representatives on November 10, 1840 and moved to the Texas Senate without any relief for McCullough, Richardson, Hardin or William Goyens.

In the Senate, the Bill was passed in favor of the Ashworths but with one small sentence amendment that had a huge impact for all FPC or Free Blacks in Texas. The additional words were: "and all 'free persons of color' together with their families, who were residing in Texas the day of the Declaration of Independence," after the names of the original beneficiaries -- the Ashworth's. Thus, William Goyens, along with all "FPC" in Texas, benefited by the Ashworth Act.

So did the term "all free persons of color" include Negroes as well? My assumption would be that it did, provided that they were free persons. The terms "Free Blacks," and "Free People of Color" had the same meanings in Texas. Free Blacks included Free People of Color, but Free People of Color, under the legislature, appears to have included Free Negroes in Texas as well.

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)

Wednesday, June 13, 2007


Are Redbones, as well as, Melungeons related within their own groups? Yes/no?

Realize that some Redbones were only related to other Redbones not because of a blood relationship, but only by association, as were Melungeons. Whether this association was because of a business relationship or just living in a given area would not have made much difference -- once tagged as a Redbone or Melungeon, it stuck.

Now granted, I would not think that there would be that many "Redbones or Melungeons by association," but it must have been a pretty handy curse when you needed to put someone in a can due to, as some folks would put it, "complexion."

At the same time, I think it was also possible for Redbones and Melungeons, to pass as White because of disassociation and more acceptable coloration's to the dominant, in charge, class of folks.

But getting back to being related within groups. Although Redbones and Melungeons, more often as not, married amongst themselves and traveled with members of other tribes, they didn't have to have blood relationships. In many cases, there were no blood relationships, yet there were relationships by marriage, just like there would be in any small town.

If, you have tied your Redbone cousins to a computerized Genealogy program, run a kinship report, and see who you are closely related to and who you are not so closely related to. Find out who is married into the family that you are not related to.

First cousins are pretty closely related, but don't let the business of one, two, three, four, five times or more "removed" throw you. We're just talking about generations away from you -- it's only an expression of time between your generation and theirs.

I was surprised to discover a relationship between Elisha Ryan Rigmaiden (wife of Thomas Rigmaiden) and myself. We are first cousins, six times removed. Also surprising was my connection with Isaac Ryan (d. 06 Mar 1836 in San Antonio) who died in the Battle of the Alamo.

Isaac was the brother to Elisha Ryan Rigmaiden, and therefore the brother-in-law to Thomas Rigmaiden. If it had not been for the date of death and the place of death, I never would have followed up on it.

If I had not included that family line, and had not run that kinship report, I would never have had a clue. But, if you think about it, everyone really is related, both near and far -- to everyone else.

Are you blood related to a Redbone?

Gary J. Gabehart, Mishiho (Mish-eh-ho)